Canada has a political system which is based on that of the United Kingdom; that is a parliamentary democracy. Queen Elizabeth is still the head of state in Canada, though there are calls for this to be changed and for Canada to become a republic. However, in reality the Queen has no power and cannot influence the workings of Canadian democracy.
The current Prime Minister of Canada is Justin Trudeau. Aged at only 44 years old he is the second youngest leader the country has ever had. He is the leader of the Liberal Party, which is as known as the Grits. It very much occupies the centre ground in Canadian politics with the Conservatives being to the right and the New Democratic Party being to the left of Trudeau. Some of their driving principles including cutting taxation for middle income earners, spending billions on infrastructure for the development and the country and eradicate the first past the post voting system.
Some of the more radical things which the party stand for, and have received some criticisms from Trudeau’s critics include legalizing marijuana and passing a bill that would make it legal for a doctor to assist somebody dying. They have also said they will take in thousands of Syrian refuges.
Like the United States, Canada has a federal system, that means that laws can be different from state to state. This also enables each state to set some of their own taxes and also they can spend their funding however they see fit. Introduced in the 1960’s, the country has a points based system of immigration which you will have to comply with as part of your application procedure if you wish to stay in Canada long term. The system was one of the first of its kind in the world but is now used widely across the globe.